Note: this figure is an interpretation of the author(s)’ ideas by K. Grossner

(p 73-74) "From our discussion of geoscientists’ tasks, spatial thinking in the geosciences can be summarized as follows:

  1. observing, describing, recording, classifying, recognizing, remembering, and communicating the two- or three-dimensional shape, internal structure, orientation and/or position of objects, properties, or processes;
  2. mentally manipulating those shapes, structures, orientations,or positions, for example, by rotation, translation, deformation, or partial removal;
  3. making interpretations about what caused the objects, properties, or processes to have those particular shapes, structures, orientations, or positions;
  4. making predictions about the consequences or implications of the observed shapes, internal structures, orientations, and positions; and
  5. using spatial-thinking strategies as a shortcut, metaphor, or mental crutch to think about processes or properties that are distributed across some dimension other than distance-space."