Source: Janelle and Goodchild (2011)

In this chapter, Janelle and Goodchild present a synthesis of concepts of value to the geospatial analysis of phenomena.Each of these "foundation concepts" has several "subsidiary concepts," some of which are listed here:

**Location**[points, lines, areas (e.g. polygons, rasters, grid cells and tessellations)]**Distance**[relative distance, multidimensional scaling, social distance]**Neighborhood**and**Region**[formal region, functional region, territory]**Networks**[planar and non-planar networks, circuits, trees, routes, paths, graphs]**Overlays**[spatial integration, meging (unions, intersections) of data registered to the same areal unit]**Scale**[generalization, downscaling, self-similarity (fractals)]**Spatial Heterogeneity**[first-order effects, non-stationarity, uncontrolled variance]**Spatial Dependence**[spatial clusters, formal regions, distance-decay and spatial lag effects, autoregressive processes]**Objects and Fields**[discrete object versus continuous phenomena perspective]