Source: Janelle and Goodchild (2011)

schema Janelle Goodchild In this chapter, Janelle and Goodchild present a synthesis of concepts of value to the geospatial analysis of phenomena.Each of these "foundation concepts" has several "subsidiary concepts," some of which are listed here:

  • Location [points, lines, areas (e.g. polygons, rasters, grid cells and tessellations)]
  • Distance [relative distance, multidimensional scaling, social distance]
  • Neighborhood and Region [formal region, functional region, territory]
  • Networks [planar and non-planar networks, circuits, trees, routes, paths, graphs]
  • Overlays [spatial integration, meging (unions, intersections) of data registered to the same areal unit]
  • Scale [generalization, downscaling, self-similarity (fractals)]
  • Spatial Heterogeneity [first-order effects, non-stationarity, uncontrolled variance]
  • Spatial Dependence [spatial clusters, formal regions, distance-decay and spatial lag effects, autoregressive processes]
  • Objects and Fields [discrete object versus continuous phenomena perspective]