The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article demonstrates how microbial forensics is a relatively new field that can help in solving cases such as: bioterrorism attacks, medical negligence, and outbreaks of foodborne diseases. The paper is suitable for undergraduate and beyond levels. Excerpts from the paper are provided in a companion article at http://www.actionbioscience.org/newfrontiers/salyersarticle.html, suitable for middle school and lower division high school reading.