Chemical modification with photoisomerizable tethered ligands endows proteins with sensitivity to light. These optically actuated proteins are revolutionizing research in biology by making it possible to manipulate biological processes noninvasively and with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. The questions are: 1. How does eating “”junk food”” during pregnancy and/or lactation affect the metabolism of offspring? 2. Do the abnormalities in Ca2+ signaling observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease? 3. What can the crystal structure of a sodium galactose transporter reveal about the molecular mechanism of Na+/glucose cotransporter proteins (SGLTs)? 4. Does AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) have a role in smooth muscle contraction? 5. Does a mutation in the cardiac calsequestrin gene (CASQ2) result in the rare autosomal recessive form of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT)? 6. How are substrates translocated by neurotransmitter:sodium symporters? 7. How is ATP release form biliary epithelial cells induced? 8. How does the Ca2+-activated fusion process occur in various cell types?