This material is excerpted from the book, Numbers aren’t nasty: A workbook of spatial concepts, by David J. Unwin, Emeritus Professor of Geography. A description of the entire workbook and a downloadable copy are here.

"This chapter continues the examination and clarification of concepts relating to point objects, for which as argued in Chapter 1, appropriate, complex/ second order, concepts relate to words like ‘distribution’, ‘dispersion’, ‘density’, ‘pattern’ and ‘scale’ and, at higher level still, third order concepts relating to point process models, stationarity and isotropy/anisotropy"

Chapter 3: Patterns of Point Objects

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Exercise (8): Dotting the map
  • 3.3 Exercise (9): Drawing your own pin map
  • 3.4 Exercise (10): Proportionate symbol maps
  • 3.5 Exercise (11): Centrography
  • 3.6 Exercise (12): Nearest neighbor statistics
  • 3.7 Exercise (13): Ripley’s K statistic
  • 3.8 Further Exercises: Other things you can do with Crimestat III
  • 3.9 References

You may download the PDF and data below