This introduction to the concept of biological complexity demystifies and debunks the argument of Paley that a complex watch is compelling evidence requiring a (complex) watchmaker (designer or creator). It employs a mathematical exercise to demonstrate this, involving a randomizing component (a die), and a simple mathematical rule (the non-random component), resulting in the repeated plotting of points. Repeated cycles eventually produce an orderly pattern. Students will learn that simple rules, acting on random events can easily produce complex, seemingly designed patterns.
This page introduces streams and channels and describes the geometry and dynamics of stream channels, including cross sectional shape, discharge, long profiles, base level, laminar and turbulent flow, the load of the stream, and floods. The site explains channel patterns, including straight, meandering and braided channels; erosion by streams; stream deposits, including floodplains and levees, terraces, alluvial fans, and deltas; and drainage systems, including drainage basins and divides, stream order, drainage patterns and continental divides.
A unit that introduces flowcharting as a technique for solving math word problems in a logical, ordered sequence. Basic charting concepts of categorizing data and information in groups of input and output data, operations, and decisions are explained. Lessons range from charting steps to perform everyday tasks outside of the mathematics classroom, to charting formulas and processes of solving mathematical word problems.
In this quick activity about size and scale (on page 2 of the PDF), each learner will be given an image of an object and communicate with other members of the group to arrange the objects they are holding in order of size (largest objects on one end and smallest on the other). Scale ladders help kids recognize the order of magnitude of some benchmark objects and correctly arrange them in order of size.