This lesson compares in detail the banding patterns seen on stained chromosomes from humans and chimpanzees, showing striking similarities. Possible evolutionary relationships are explored, as are the chromosomes and relationships of other apes.
This introduction to the concept of biological complexity demystifies and debunks the argument of Paley that a complex watch is compelling evidence requiring a (complex) watchmaker (designer or creator). It employs a mathematical exercise to demonstrate this, involving a randomizing component (a die), and a simple mathematical rule (the non-random component), resulting in the repeated plotting of points. Repeated cycles eventually produce an orderly pattern. Students will learn that simple rules, acting on random events can easily produce complex, seemingly designed patterns.
This page introduces streams and channels and describes the geometry and dynamics of stream channels, including cross sectional shape, discharge, long profiles, base level, laminar and turbulent flow, the load of the stream, and floods. The site explains channel patterns, including straight, meandering and braided channels; erosion by streams; stream deposits, including floodplains and levees, terraces, alluvial fans, and deltas; and drainage systems, including drainage basins and divides, stream order, drainage patterns and continental divides.
The article presents and explains the diamond-shaped pattern that appears in the rocket engine and jet engine exhausts. Several photographs illustrate this phenomenon, and images show how crisscrossing shock waves produce the diamond shapes.
In this lesson, the third in a set of lessons exploring migration, genetic markers, markers in context, and the Genographic Project (a five-year study of human origins and migration based on genetic markers), students will examine other markers of human migration, uncovered by such fields as archaeology, paleontology, cultural anthropology, linguistics, and history. Students will begin by conducting a hands-on study of patterns of genetic markers. They will consider ways in which contextual information provides scientists with clues about ancient migratory patterns.
This activity uses Jell-O(R) to introduce learners to microfluidics, the flow of fluids through microscopic channels. Using wooden coffee stirrers, learners create patterns to be cast in Jell-O(R), then mix Jell-O(R() and pour it over the pattern, letting it set overnight (or over a weekend if possible). Once cured, the stirrers are removed, and water with food coloring is forced through the fluid channels. Multiple variations are shown, including one that uses pH paper as sensors, as well as suggestions and examples for different age groups.
What is the difference between the arithmetic 3+5 = 5+3 and the algebraic a+b = b+c? One is a specific fact, another is a pattern valid in a multitude of situations. While arithmetic may hint at some regularities, algebra, as a language, gives expression to acknowledgement of patterns as such. How did people express general ideas before the advent of algebra in the 15th-17th centuries? A discussion of patterns and number systems with a Java applet showing Addition and Multiplication Tables in Various Bases.
In this lesson about speciation and its role in evolution, different subspecies of a California salamander are placed on a grid map of California according to where samples were collected. Discussion focuses on patterns of their distribution, their likely evolutionary relationships, and probable sequence of formation from the original form (speciation).
This outline of basic information on earthquakes starts with an explanation of an earthquake, including the forces acting on rock, (tension, compression, and shear) and plastic and elastic deformation of rock. Next, the principle of the seismograph, seismometer, and seismogram along with the three types of seismic waves are discussed.