These supplemental class notes cover the basic properties of matter, the nature of forces, the electromagnetic spectrum, and how astronomers exploit the properties of the EM spectrum to deduce the physical nature of distant objects.
In this site, Martin Chaplin has brought together a selection of ideas concerning the complex behavior of water in hopes of encouraging both the understanding of water and further work. Some of the many ideas presented are: the structure of water, water anomalies, hydrogen bonding, the phase diagram of water, and water hydration.
This site explains that seismologic studies of the Earth have revealed that it has several distinct layers. Each of these layers has its own properties and this information has helped to give credence to plate tectonic theory. There is an interactive diagram of the Earth that shows and describes the layers. In addition, each layer is described and diagramed in detail. There are also active links to a Glossary of Terms for unfamiliar words in the text.
Earth is surrounded by a protective atmosphere, composed of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, and trace amounts of other gases, that protects Earth’s surface from damaging solar radiation and plays a major role in water and energy transport. This interactive feature shows the vertical structure of the atmosphere. Viewers can see the regions of the atmosphere, some of the objects (natural and man-made) found at various altitudes, as well as the variations in air temperature and pressure with altitude.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology has recently updated its online Dictionary of Algorithms, Data Structures and Problems. The dictionary takes the form of a hypertext alphabetical list of terms dealing with algorithmic techniques and functions (e.g., Ackermann’s Function), data structures, archetypical problems (e.g., “traveling salesman”), and related definitions. Nice features of the site include a page of links to implementations (code) and some expanded definitions and diagrams for the terms.
This interactive animation gives students a taste of atomic/molecular structure by exploring four elements: oxygen, neon, bromine, and iodine. These elements were chosen because they represent four very different structures — a noble gas (neon), a diatomic gas molecule (oxygen), a diatomic liquid molecule (bromine), and a diatomic solid molecule (iodine). Each element is represented in illustrations and animations that model the molecular motion. The periodic table may be displayed simultaneously to help students accurately answer the question sets.
This Wikipedia page provides an overview of tension structures and describes the important architects and engineers who use this form of construction. The page includes the history of tension structures, a discussion of the double curvature minimal surfaces, and an introduction to their mathematical analysis. Numerous drawings and photographs illustrate the page.