"These spatial-temporal primitives are applicable within finite geographic space (the geosphere consisting of the earth mass and its surrounding atmosphere), and this implementation does not require these primitives to be fundamental, as conceived by the earlier investigators. Like them, however, there is no claim made that the list is exhaustive. Instead, the primary objectives are to identify spatial-temporal properties that are observable and measurable, and thus capable of being used as a framework for analysis for helping prospective teachers improve their geographic skills" (p 172-173)

Note: this figure is an interpretation of the author(s)’ ideas by K. Grossner