This instructional module introduces four types of research methods: experimentation, description, comparison, and modeling. It was developed to help learners understand that the classic definition of the “”scientific method”” does not capture the dynamic nature of science investigation. As learners explore each methodology, they develop an understanding of why scientists use multiple methods to gather data and develop hypotheses. Editor’s Note: Secondary students often cling to the notion that scientific research follows a stock, standard “”scientific method””. They may be unaware of the differences between experimental research, correlative studies, observation, and computer-based modeling research. In this resource, they can glimpse each methodology in the context of a real study done by respected scientists. This resource is part of Visionlearning, an award-winning set of classroom-tested modules for science education.